Research Based Professional Formulas







Migraine 4x



Co Enzyme Q10
Pyridoxyl 5’ Phosphate

120 DRcaps

NPN 80062840

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(4 DRCaps)
Coenyme Q10 (CoQ10)
75 mg 300 mg
Pyridoxyl 5' Phosphate (PLP) 5 mg 20 mg
Phosphatidylcholine 400 mg 1,600 mg

Recommended dose:

Adults: Take 4 DRCaps daily, 2 with the morning meal and 2 with the evening meal, or as directed by a health care professional.

Recommended use or purpose:

Cautions and warnings:


Coenzyme Q10, called Ubiquinone because of its ubiquitous nature, can be called Nature's ‘spark plug’.

Ubiquinone, is concentrated in the mitochondria - the “power plants” of the cell - and plays a vital role in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body’s so called “energy currency”. Through its synthesis of energy Ubiquinone is involved in all body processes requiring energy; energy synthesis; active transport; membrane and nucleotide stability; syntheses of enzymes, coenzymes, hormones; neurotransmitter synthesis and reuptake; cillary activity in the upper respiratory systems; all muscle contractile functions; sperm production and motility; deactivation of muscle contractions; pumping action of sweat and other cutaneous glands; etc.

Ubiquinone is the hub around which life processes revolve in the human body. Coenzyme CoQ10 exists in two forms and structure as Ubiquinone and Ubiquinol, having two separate but essential functions, and its ability to act as a redox pair to recycle each other as needed. Without Ubiquinone, life is not possible because the body cannot survive without energy. Ubiquinol, due to its antioxidant properties, recycles Ubiquinone to maintain the life sustaining supply of energy. Ubiquinol and other antioxidants act as part of the host defense system and prevent the toxic by- products (free radicals and super oxides) from the synthesis of energy, from damaging our cells and shortening and reducing the quality of life. Ubiquinone and Ubiquinol, being redox pairs, are easily converted from one form to the other in the body. When exogenous Ubiquinone is absorbed from the intestines it is converted to Ubiquinol in the absorption cells, the lymph, or in the blood. Since CoQ10 is not used to produce energy in the lymph system or blood, it is understandable that this conversion takes place to fulfill the need for anti-oxidant protection in the circulation.

On the other hand, in the inner membrane of the mitochondria where energy is made, the oxidized Ubiquinone is necessary, and the reduced form Ubiquinol is rapidly converted to the oxidized Ubiquinone form. This conversion is known as the Q cycle, and it was once thought that the proportion of Ubiquinone and Ubiquinol required for energy synthesis would last indefinitely. It is now known that age and disease diminish the body’s ability to produce Ubiquinone and to convert it to Ubiquinol and that CoQ10 deficiency would be prevalent in an ageing society.

Pyridoxyl-5'-Phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6 should be included with CoQ10 supplementation because it further enhances plasma concentrations of CoQ10. PLP is essential to the endogenous (internal) synthesis of CoQ10. It is known that the endogenous bio-synthesis of CoQ10 from the precursor tyrosine is dependent on adequate PLP levels. Research has found that individuals with low plasma CoQ10 status are also low in plasma PLP.11, 13 Taiwanese researchers found that high blood levels of CoQ10 and vitamin B6 (pyridoxyl-5-phosphate) were linked to lower artery disease risk.

Phosphatidylcholine (PC): A more effective delivery system (release in the small intestine) should include the use of fat soluble emulsifying agents such as phosphatidylcholine to increase the bio-activity of CoQ10. It was demonstrated that the bio-availability of sitostanol, a phytosterol compound, was increased when formulated with lecithin.10 Another study showed that absorption of the fat soluble carotenoid lycopene was enhanced with the enteral administration of phosphatidylcholine.11 In addition to PC’s ability to assist in the transport of CoQ10 throughout the bloodstream and bile, it functions structurally as a component of the cell membrane and as a neurotransmitter for normal brain function.

Supplemental intake of CoQ10 formulated with phosphatidylcholine and pyridoxyl-5'-phosphate will enhance plasma concentrations of CoQ10 thereby improving its bio-activity. In addition, this combination of nutrients may also help reduce the levels of plasma homocysteine (an independent marker for cardiovascular disease risk), since pyridoxyl-5'-phosphate and phosphatidylcholine support the methylation pathways responsible for lowering homocysteine levels.

Bio-Availability of Ubiquinone and Ubiquinol

CoQ10 (Ubiquinone) is a large molecule that is absorbed through the absorption cells in the small intestine by a simple passive facilitated diffusion process. Passive means that the process does not require energy: Facilitated means that the process requires a lipid molecule such as phosphatidylcholine to act as a carrier for the CoQ10 molecules.

After absorption, CoQ10 accumulates in the blood and becomes bio-available to all body cells. Bioavailability reflects absorption but it is not the actual absorption and should not be used as an accurate measure of such; it does, however, give a good estimate of the amount of CoQ10 available as an antioxidant in the blood and that’s available to the body cells. CoQ10 is accumulated and is stored in the cell membranes and in the membranes of the organelles in the cell.

It has been known for over two decades that the bio-availability of the pure crystalline CoQ10 is less than that of liposome, micelle, and dissolved CoQ10 forms. The current commercial and scientific issue is the bio-availability of Ubiquinol compared to that of Ubiquinone.

Both forms are poorly absorbed when supplemented in traditional hard and soft gelatin capsules or tablets, with only 1% of the oxidized Ubiquinone absorbed in its pure crystalline state. Up to a 3 times increase in absorption is possible with Ubiquinol or with micelle forms of Ubiquinone; however, 3 x 1% is still only 3%, a very low absorption. The 97% of ingested CoQ10 is “digested” by stomach acids and enzymes and very little actually enters the small intestine for absorption.

Coenzyme Q10 for Migraine Prevention

Open label trial of coenzyme Q10 as a migraine preventative17


The objective was to assess the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as a preventive treatment for migraine headaches. 32 patients (26 women, 6 men) with a history of episodic migraine with or without aura were treated with coenzyme Q10 at a dose of 150 mg per day. 31 of 32 patients completed the study; 61.3% of patients had a greater than 50% reduction in number of days with migraine headache. The average number of days with migraine during the baseline period was 7.34 and this decreased to 2.95 after 3 months of therapy, which was a statistically significant response (P < 0.0001). Mean reduction in migraine frequency after 1 month of treatment was 13.1% and this increased to 55.3% by the end of 3 months. Mean migraine attack frequency was 4.85 during the baseline period and this decreased to 2.81 attacks by the end of the study period, which was a statistically significant response (P < 0.001). There were no side-effects noted with coenzyme Q10. From this open label investigation coenzyme Q10 appears to be a good migraine preventive. Placebo-controlled trials are now necessary to determine the true efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in migraine prevention.

Dosage and potential side effects:

The dosage recommended and used in the study is 150 mg of Coenzyme Q10 daily. As for potential side effects, the study showed:

"In most instances coenzyme Q10 administration has been very well tolerated in doses up to 600 mg per day, with an excellent side-effect profile. The most common side-effects pertain to the gastrointestinal system and include nausea, diarrhea, appetite suppression, heartburn and epigastric discomfort. In large studies the incidence of gastrointestinal side-effects is less than 1%." As for side effects, coenzyme Q10 has few, and rarely is the incidence of side effects of any medication or supplement less than 1%. This is an excellent side effects profile.

Key points from the trial:

The bottom line from this study:

"Coenzyme Q10 looks to be an excellent choice for initial therapy for prevention of episodic migraine if confirmed by controlled studies of efficacy. It can be given to almost any age group without fear of significant side-effects."

Hershey et al Study18

Hershey et al conducted a study with the stated objective to, "This study documents the prevalence of CoQ10 deficiency in migraine headache and examines the potential effectiveness of supplementation." They found CoQ10 deficiency to be common in pediatric and adolescent Migraineurs and supplementation to be beneficial.


Although research and development of Migraine abortives has made great strides in recent years, work on preventives has been woefully lacking. None of the medications used for Migraine prevention were originally developed specifically for that purpose, and trials of drugs being used off-label for Migraine prevention have been so few that only one drug has actually been approved by the FDA for Migraine prevention (Depakote). This trial of coenzyme Q10 is important because of its excellent results and because it is for a Migraine preventative rather than another Migraine abortive.



Ubiquinone is manufactured by the body with the help of Pyridoxyl-5'-Phosphate. Ubiquinol is not manufactured directly by the body, but is produced by the breakdown of Ubiquinone as part of the Q cycle.

In spite of what the promoters of Ubiquinol claim there has been very little scientific evidence that Ubiquinol supplements are equal to, much less better than Ubiquinone in terms of biological activity or therapeutic benefit. Ubiquinol became commercially available in 2006, and to date there have been no clinical studies in human beings comparing Ubiquinone to Ubiquinol that have been published in peer reviewed scientific literature.

The most critical aspect of CoQ10 supplementation is absorption. Ubiquinone formulas that incorporate synergists such as Pyridoxyl-5-Phosphate and Phosphatidylcholine, and use the new DRcaps for enhanced intestinal absorption offer the most biologically active and cost effective way to CoQ10 supplementation and should be the supplement of choice.

Note: in all of these studies Ubiquinone, not Ubiquinol was used.


A revolutionary new capsule technology has recently entered the market. These delayed release vegetarian capsules called DRcaps resist the low Ph of stomach acids and enzymes and will release the capsule contents directly to the higher Ph of the small intestine. For nutrients such as CoQ10, PQQ, NAG, pancreatic enzymes and other antioxidants, this is a substantial advantage as absorption is increased substantially.

NOTE: For maximum benefit, take the SOURCE Optimum, SONA based vitamin/mineral/ enzyme formula and VEGAN Omega 3-6-9 to provide the body with optimum levels of other essential nutrients necessary to help maintain long term good health.

Packaging: Packed in light & oxygen resistant recyclable PETE (Bisphenol A free) bottles. 
Gluten Free: Contains no animal substance, artificial preservatives, colours, flavours, starch, sugar, lactose, dairy, salt, yeast or wheat.
DRcaps: Hypromellose polymer, gellan gum (designed to dissolve in the small intestine)
DRCaps is a reg. trademark of Capsugel.


  1. Weber C et al. Coenzyme Q10 in the Diet- Daily Intake and Relative Bioavailability. Mol Aspects Med. 1997; 18 Suppl: S251-4.
  2. Modi K et al. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on Catalase Activity and Other Antioxidant Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Biol Trac Elem Res. 2006 Jan; 109(1):25-34.
  3. Chan A et al. Metabolic Changes in Patients with Mitochondrial Myopathies and Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Therapy. J Neurol. 1998 Oct; 245(10):681-5.
  4. Hofman-Bang et al. Coenzyme Q10 as an Adjunctive in the Treatment of Chronic Congestive Heart Failure. The Q10 Study Group. J Card Fail. 1995 Mar; 1(2): 101-7.
  5. Singh RB et al. Effect of Hydrosoluble Coenzyme Q10 on Blood Pressures and Insulin Resistance in Hypertensive Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. J Hum Hypertens. 1999 Mar; 13(3): 203-8.
  6. Singh RB et al. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on Risk of Atherosclerosis in Patients with Recent Myocardial Infarction. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Apr; 246(1-2): 75-82.
  7. Weis M et al. Bioavailability of Four Oral Coenzyme Q10 Formulations in Healthy Volunteers. Mol Aspects Med. 1994; 15 Suppl: s273-80.
  8. Chopra RK et al. Relative Bioavailability of Coenzyme Q10 Formulations in Human Subjects. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998; 68(2):109-13. Shils ME and Young VR. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lea and Febiger. 988.
  9. Richard EO et al. Sitostanol Administered in Lecithin Micelles Potently Reduces Cholesterol Absorption in Humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70(5): 826-831.
  10. Nishimukai M and Hara H. Enteral Administration of Soybean Phosphatidylcholine Enhances the Lymphatic Absorption of Lycopene, but Reduces That of Alpha-Tocopherol in Rats. J Nutr; 2004; Aug; 134(8): 1862-6.
  11. Willis R et al. Clinical Implications of the Correlation Between Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin B6 Status. Biofactors. 1999; 9(2-4):359-63.
  12. European Journal of Heart Failure (2013) 15 (S1), S20. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure. Results from the Q-SYMBIO study
  13. A significant correlation between the plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin B-6 and a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Nutrition Research, Volume 32, Issue 10, Pages 751-756, Oct. 2012
  14. Fotino, Am J Clin. Nutr. 2013
  15. Mortensen, Eur J Heart Failure 2013
  16. Mortensen, JACC Heart Failure October, 2014 - the Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on Morbidity and Mortality in Chronic Heart Failure. Results from Q-SYMBIO: A Randomized Double Blind Trial.
  17. Rozen, TD, Oshinsky, ML, Gebeline, CA, Bradley, KC, Young, WB, Shechter, AL & Silberstein, SD. "Open label trial of coenzyme Q10 as a migraine preventive." Cephalalgia 22 (2), 137-141.
  18. Andrew D. Hershey MD, PhD, Scott W. Powers PhD, Anna-Liisa B. Vockell RN, MSN, CPNP, Susan L. LeCates RN, MSN, CFNP, Priscilla L. Ellinor RN, MSN, CPNP, Ann Segers RN, Danny Burdine BA, Paula Manning RN, Marielle A. Kabbouche MD (2007). "Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency and Response to Supplementation in Pediatric and Adolescent Migraine." Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain 47 (1), 73– 80 doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2007.00652.

List of articles for more information.

CoQ10 and Migraine Relief
CoQ10 - The Body's Spark Plug
CoQ10 - Improves symptoms of congestive heart failure
CoQ10 - Facts & Fabrications
Coenzyme Q10 decreases all cause mortality by half
First powered study shows CoQ10 can reduce heart failure by half
CoQ10 boosts power in German athletes: Study
CoEnzyme Q-10 Medline Plus
CoQ10 and vitamin B6 levels linked to lower artery disease risk
CoQ10 May Boost Antioxidant Defenses in People with Atherosclerosis
CoQ10 may enhance anti-inflammatory potential of Med diet
Selenium + CoQ10 supplements may slash cardiovascular mortality: RCT

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